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The Purchase Exam - Recommended Before Buying Any Horse
Doug Thal, DVM
For horse people, the purchase of a new horse is an exciting time. Unfortunately, many horses are purchased that are not suitable for their intended use. This lack of suitability most often is due to a lameness problem that was not noticed at purchase, but can result from anything from behavioral to general health issues. As an equine veterinarian, I often run into the scenario where a horse has been purchased and then realized to have a problem. It is a great disappointment for a new horse owner to learn that they have just bought a horse with a handicap that will make it difficult or impossible for the horse to perform its intended use, and that it may now be impossible to return the horse to the seller or to sell it.
The goal of this article is to explain the goals, components and limitations of the purchase exam and to encourage readers to have a purchase exam performed whenever they buy a horse. Even when the purchase price is low, the cost of horse ownership is always very high. I believe that if you buy a horse, it should be one that is sound and in line with your needs. In the horse business, it is buyer beware! A purchase exam is a very smart investment in peace of mind.
The Components and Goals of a purchase exam
The purchase examination is a thorough veterinary exam performed on a horse before a buyer agrees to its purchase. The exam is a contract entered into between buyer and veterinarian. The buyer agrees to pay the veterinarian for the exam, and agrees to what the basic exam will entail. The veterinarian gives the most objective evaluation he can of the horse, taking into account a balance of factors. After the exam, the veterinarian usually provides a written report to the buyer detailing the exam findings and recommendations. The ultimate goal is an educated buyer satisfied with the purchase of the horse, and the horse working within his or her ability.
Clear and honest communication among parties before the exam is extremely important. Examples of this include:
• A clarification of the buyer’s expectations and goals for the horse. This means discussion of buyer’s experience level and intensity of intended use for the horse. I generally ask the buyer if they have any special reservations or concerns about the horse at this time.
• The buyer’s expectations of the exam. Purchase exams can be very basic, or can employ all sorts of diagnostic tests (some very expensive), depending on the buyer’s budget and their willingness to assume risk. The exam is often radically different for a horse purchased as a trail horse for an inexperienced rider than for one purchased as a high level dressage or western performance horse.
• A discussion with the seller. Information I like to get from the seller includes the work history and prior performance level of the horse, and especially the horse’s recent work schedule and intensity of that work. I also ask questions about general care and management, any special care given, and any health problems the horse might have had, including prior lameness and colic.
I offer a standard, core purchase exam which is done on every horse. The price for this does not include any other diagnostic tests. Other tests are added at the end of the exam as needed and depending on intended use, the buyer’s expectations and risk aversion, findings in the exam, and the purchase price of the horse versus the cost of the test.
I perform an initial quick assessment of the horse’s basic health at rest, which includes inspecting to insure that its age and description match the buyer’s expectations. I then follow with a brief, initial lameness exam. If the horse is found to be sick, unsuitable, or lame in this early part of the exam, then the exam is stopped and the client pays a minimum fee less than for the full exam. The examination is canceled or delayed with the responsibility shifted back to the seller and his vet to start treatment and produce a sound horse for us to examine in the future.
Lameness is the most common and significant problem encountered in a purchase exam. Thus the lameness part is very detailed and makes up the bulk of the exam.
I start by carefully examining the musculoskeletal system. I then watch the horse move through a variety of patterns both in hand and loose in a round pen and on different footings. Next, I perform flexion exams and hoof tester application. If I find that the horse is lame, I stop the exam. If my general sense is that the lameness is not chronic or severe, I might advise the buyer that they shift the burden onto the seller and his veterinarian to diagnose and treat the lameness for a period of time. The seller and vet must satisfy me that the problem is not serious and poses no threat to the goals of the buyer, and the horse must undergo a full recovery before the exam is rescheduled. If, on the other hand, the lameness appears to me to likely be of a more chronic or debilitating nature I generally advise my client that they search for another horse.
If the horse is sound from a lameness standpoint, then examination of all of the other body systems is completed. If all of this is done, and the horse is sound and healthy, then I discuss other tests which might provide additional information and even greater security in the decision to purchase. Which tests are done depend on the client’s needs and budget and my recommendations for that particular case.
Additional tests include radiography (x-ray), ultrasound, reproductive tests, blood tests, and drug testing. Whether specific additional diagnostic tests are performed depends on many factors, especially the desired use for the horse, the cost of the horse, and the buyer’s goals and tolerance for risk. For performance horses, x-ray series of front feet and hocks might be performed. For a broodmare, reproductive ultrasound and other reproductive tests would be recommended. We often perform drug screens to insure that the horse is not medicated during the exam.
Some veterinarians make x-ray a part of every purchase exam. There are advantages to this. Even if a horse is not lame, the horse may have an x-ray abnormality that would not have been found otherwise. This problem may raise concerns about the soundness of the horse. X-rays and other diagnostics done at purchase serve as a baseline so that progression of a problem can be assessed. Diagnostics can also help protect the veterinarian in case there is a problem found later. Sometimes, diagnostic tests complicate what was a clear picture. An example of this is when a sound horse is found to have a subtle problem visible on x-ray. For each specific finding, there is a different risk that the problem will interfere with the intended use of the horse. This is where the whole process becomes as much art as science. The significance assigned to a given problem depends on the veterinarian’s experience and knowledge of the problem and the typical outcome he or she has experienced for this problem, in a horse of this type, engaged in this activity, at this level. Ultimately, no horse is perfect.
I do not “pass” or “fail” a horse in a purchase exam. It is always the buyer’s decision whether or not to proceed with the purchase. My job is to objectively provide the buyer with all of the information needed to help him or her make an informed decision.
Examples of pitfalls and limitations inherent in the purchase exam
• Accurate prediction of the future is impossible.
• Often, the buyer and seller are not present for the exam and so communication among parties is difficult and can be strained.
• It is risky to examine a horse which has not been in work. Lameness problems may not be visible then but can show up when the horse is put back into work.
• It is risky to perform a partial or incomplete exam. Often the one area not examined ends up being a problem.
• There is a potential conflict of interest if the veterinarian ordinarily works for the seller, or is perceived as working for both buyer and seller. Ideally the seller’s vet does not do the exam.
• If the sale does not go through, one or both parties may be angry or disappointed.
• Different vets perform the exam differently, and have different levels of expertise with horses of different breeds, types and performing different types of work.
• There are risks in examination of the horse under less than optimal conditions. I only perform the exam under conditions that I am comfortable with, and usually only at my facility. It is risky to assess a horse in unfamiliar or irregular footing. It is easy to miss a subtle problem.
• Purchase exams have been performed by veterinarians for a very long time, but given today’s litigious climate, many veterinarians try to avoid them. They are one of the most common reasons for lawsuits against veterinarians.
In my opinion, buyers should have a purchase exam performed before buying any horse, regardless of cost. It is a smart investment. The purchase exam must always be thought of as a contract, and expectations and communication among all parties must be very clear. The limitations and variables inherent in the exam must be understood by all parties. When these guidelines are followed, the purchase exam is a satisfying experience for everyone.
It is very important to remember that no horse is perfect. Sometimes the most unlikely candidates make up for their less than ideal conformation and physical potential with “heart” - that intangible quality that a few equine and human athletes have. This is hard to evaluate in the purchase exam and is a subjective assessment made by the buyer. A familiar example of the importance of this is the Cinderella story of “Seabiscuit.”